GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE AIR TRANSPORT OF THE DANGEROUS GOODS
Expert instructor, Romanian Aviation Academy email@example.com
Abstract: In Romania, the civil aeronautical activity is regulated trough: The Air Code, the inner normative acts in the field, as well as concerning the provisions of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (signed at Chicago in the 7-th of December 1944), to the other international conventions and agreements to witch Romania is part of.
Keywords: Aviation Organization, Civil Aviation Authority, Civil Aeronautical Regulations, Dangerous Goods.
The origin state.
Agreed to the provisions of the Air Code, The Minister of Transport, as a state authority, emits and assures trough delegated authorities the elaboration and/or the emission of Romanian Civil Aeronautical Regulations (RACR). These regulations have a compulsory character for all the participants at the civil and connected aeronautical activities, as well as for all those who provide activities in the areas submitted to the civil aeronautical servitude. The Romanian Civil Aeronautical Regulations (RACR) are elaborated, emitted or adopted according to the provisions and the recommendations of the Chicago Convention (signed at Chicago in the 7-th of December 1944), to other international conventions and agreements to which Romania is a part of. Thus is provided a united, coherent and modern character to the process of elaboration and development of the national system of Romanian Civil Aeronautical Regulations.
The Romanian Civil Aviation Authority (AACR) is the authority delegated from The Minister of Transport for the assurance of the application of the national civil aeronautical regulations. AACR supervises the respect of the aeronautical regulations by the individuals and companies, Romanian or foreigners, who give services or products for the Romanian civil aircraft. Thus AACR realizes the function of supervising of the secure in the field of civil aircraft.
The national act which regulates the air transport of the dangerous goods was elaborated by the Romanian Civil Aviation Authority and has the name: Romanian Civil Aeronautical Reglemmentations -The Air Transport of The Dangerous Goods (RACR-TABP).
This document contains technical instructions for the safe transport of the dangerous goods by air. At the elaboration of this document, AACR had in mind, the international provisions contained in The 18 Annex to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (The Safe Transport of
Dangerous Goods by Air), as well as these from EU-OPS1 Subpart R.
The provisions of this regulations are to be applied to all the direct or connected operations providing the civil air transport of dangerous goods. The appliance RACR-TABP must not be against the demands concerning the loading, the transport and the unloading of the cargos previewed in the technical instructions of the aircraft involved in this activity. In cases of extreme need, when other meanings of transport are not appropriate or the exact compliance of this rule is against the public interest, The Minister of Transport may approve derogations if a level of assurance corresponding to the transport is assured.
Appropriate to RACR-TABP
The dangerous goods – DG – are those articles or substances which, when the they are transported by air they are apt to be a major risk for health, the safe of flying, other assets, the surrounding area.
Into this category are included the articles and the substances currently used in:
- Agriculture – pesticides, chemical fertilizers.
- Industry – gasoline, methyl alcohol (methanol)
- People’s houses – acetone, cleaning powders etc.
The origin state of dangerous goods – is the state on the territory of which the package that contains the dangerous goods was loaded at the board of an aircraft for the first time.
In the activity of air transport of dangerous goods, they are involved: the sender, the air operator and the transporter. This people have the following responsibilities:
A. The sender – before offering a package:
- Checks if those assets are forbidden in the air transport
- Correctly estimates the appropriate name of transport of the dangerous goods and of the classification
• Correctly prepares the parcel
• Completes, signees and furnishes to the air operator the transport document -airwaybill – for the dangerous goods.
The transport document – is a declaration signed by the sender which proves that the dangerous good was described correctly and completely by its transport name and that it can be reached in the needed conditions for transport. It is redacted in English and in the language of.
B. The air operator :
- Checks the existence and the correctness of the transport documents
- Inspects the packing’s, the parcels and the containers
- Checks the entire respect by the sender of the legal obligations
- Accepts or refuses the dangerous goods according to the procedures
- Elaborates and uses a check-list of accepting a dangerous goods
- Forbids or accepts the dangerous goods in the passengers cabin or in the cockpit.
C. The transporter – must assure that:
- The articles or the substances are not forbidden for the air transport
- Each parcel is in the appropriate state for transport
- The marking and the labeling of the parcels was made correctly
- The documentation is written and completed correctly
• The airwaybill was signed
- In each parcel the quantities are limited to the maximum admitted
- The materials permitted only for cargo transport are labeled with „Cargo Aircraft Only”.
Classification of the dangerous goods
1. The identification of the dangerous goods:
To dangerous goods associates according to a classifications system belonging to the United Nations:
- The Code UN – a number of 4 numbers associated to the dangerous good, with the purpose of identification a named substance or a group of substances.
- The transport appropriate name -the name of the substance or of the respective article from the list of dangerous goods.
The dangerous goods can be:
- Accepted for the air transport fit to certain demands
- Forbidden for the air transport in any conditions
- Excepted for the air transport concerning to certain conditions.
2. Systems of classification of the dangerous goods:
The dangerous goods are classified upon:
A. the way of transport:
• Cargo – they are labeled with „Cargo Aircraft Only”
on the list of dangerous goods they are written as „forbidden” for the passengers airplane.
- Mixt (cargo and passengers).
B. risk categories – the dangerous goods are divided in three categories:
- category I – high/big risk
- category II – average risk
- category III – low/small risk.
C. the compatibility characteristic -certain substances may react each other, having reactions which can destroy the dangerous good, affecting the safe of the transport, of the passengers and of the
crew. Thus dangerous goods are:
- consistent – can be transported in the same transport (ex. the gaseous substances and miscellaneous dangerous substances)
- non-consistent – can’t be transported together (ex. the explosive substances and the pyrotechnical substances).
C. their characteristics physical and chemical – nine classes of dangerous goods:
- Class 1 – Explosives
- Class 2 – Gases
- Class 3 – Flammable liquids
- Class 4 – Flammable solids
- Class 5 – Oxidizing Substances and Organic Peroxides
- Class 6 – Toxic and Infectious Substances
- Class 7 – Radioactive Material
- Class 8 – Corrosives
- Class 9 – Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
The marking and the labeling of the dangerous goods
The markings and the labeling must:
- Indicate the containing of the parcel
- Indicate if the packing corresponds to the standards
- Offer safe in handling and information’s about storing
• Be written in English as well in the languages requested by the origin state of the parcel.
The transporter is responsible with the application of the labels necessary on the parcels/containers.
The operator is responsible with the replacement of the unstitched labels or of the labels which become unidentifiable during the transport. The name and the address of the man who offers the dangerous goods for air transport and of the man who accepts them must exist on every parcel.
Kinds of marking labels:
A. The risk labels: indicate the risk class presented by on the dangerous goods; differ from one class to another; contain images which indicate the risk presented by the dangerous goods, the name and the number of the risk class or of the division.
B. The handling labels give information about the way of stocking and of handling.
C. The labels of specification of the kind of packing’s used contains information about the kind of packing, the dangerous goods category, the name of the country of the packing purveyor, the date of the supplying.
The packing of the dangerous goods The packing’s must be: of the highest quality; made in agreement with the requests of the United Nations; consistent with the substances and with the articles contained by the parcels; built, tight and ready to prevent the damages in the time of flight.
Classification of packing’s:
A. According to the degree of risk of
the dangerous goods:
- Packing Group I – high danger
- Packing Group II – medium danger
- Packing Group III – low danger.
B. According to their destination in the
• interior. Kinds of packing’s:
• Combined packing’s – the article/the substance from such kind of packing is enclosed into an interior packing enclosed at its turn into more exterior packing’s.
• United packing’s – the article/the substance from such kind of packing is packed into a single container/packing.
The check of the packing is made by checking or by prevention.
Responsibilities in the boarding of the dangerous goods
The dangerous goods can’t be embarked in the passengers cabins or of the flight crew even if: the operator permits their boarding; can be transported in the hand baggage’s; they are radioactive excepted by the rules (ex. the undeveloped films).
The dangerous goods may be charged in the main compartment cargo, if this meets the needs of certification for a cargo compartment type B.
The cargo compartments are classified into five classes, from the class A to the class E.
In the class B there is enough space, with complete access; can enter with the fire extinguishers. At this type of class, the smoke, flames and the extinction materials can’t enter the passengers compartments and of the crew.
The air operator has to inform the passengers about the types of dangerous goods which are forbidden to the transport, trough the placement in a visible place to some posters with forbidden dangerous goods.
Also, the air operator has to offer written information about the dangerous goods transport to the pilot in command and to the members of the flight crew.
- ANNEX 18 ICAO- The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air – Third Edition/July 2001
- Technical Instructions for The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air -Doc. ICAO 9284
- EU- OPS 1 Subpart R – Common technical requirements and administrative procedures applicable to commercial transportation by aircraft (OPS 1: Commercial Air Transportation -Airplanes), Subpart R – Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air – published in the Official Journal of the European Union/ 12.01.2008
- PIAC – OPS 1 Subpart R – Civil Aeronautical Procedures and Instructions for commercial air transportations (OPS 1: Commercial Air Transportation -Airplanes); Subpart R -Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air -First Edition /2009
- RACR – TABP – Romanian Civil Aeronautical Regulations- The Air Transport of The Dangerous Goods – Third Edition /2008